Study Skills[Project] Example of Magazines

Hello Group 15

In this website, you will see some examples of magazines in this website

As for the handmade issue; start buying some glue and stationeries that might help.

As for the deadline, do not forget, that your time is limited,

remember the ‘you have 15 mns’ while you have only 10.

Classical Period: Babylonia Handout

This is the handout that you will be given in the classroom to study. Again, try to look up for difficult words and do some personal research. Keep up! Click here to download the handout

Classical Periods

1st Year LMD

Teacher: Ms Bouadma

Babylon: Capital City of Babylonia

Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia. It was the capital city of Babylonia from the second to first millennium B.C. Hammurabi made Babylon the capital city of his kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar, centuries later, also made his capital in Babylon and rebuilt the city. Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon was the largest city of the time. In it was a temple of Marduk and Ziggurat, the Tower of Babel. In 331 B.C. Babylon surrendered to Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, Babylon fell into the hands of the Seleucids.Babylon was a commercial, administrative, literary, and religious center. The chief god of Babylon, Marduk, became supreme Mesopotamian god.



 Hammurabi ruled  Mesopotamia. He is credited with uniting most of this area under one extensive empire for the first time since Sargon of Akkad did so in about 2300 BC. To do this, Hammurabi waged several military campaigns. The purpose of most of his operations was to gain control of the Tigris and Euphrates waters, on which agricultural productivity depended.

The last 14 years of Hammurabi’s reign were overshadowed by war. In 1763 he fought against a coalition east of the Tigris that threatened to block access to metal-producing areas in Iran. The same year he conquered the city of Larsa, which enabled him to take over the older Sumerian cities in the south. He followed this victory with the conquest of Mari, 250 miles (400 kilometers) upstream on the Euphrates. During his last two years the king concentrated on building defensive fortifications. By this time he was a sick man, and the government was in the hands of his son, Samsuiluna.

Hammurabi effected great changes in all spheres of life, mostly from the transformation of a small city-state into a large empire. Most of his rule was given to the establishment of law and order, religious buildings, irrigation projects, and defense works. Throughout his long reign, he personally supervised navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, and the erection of many temples and other buildings. Although he was a successful military leader and administrator, Hammurabi is primarily remembered for his codification of the laws governing Babylonian life called the Code of Hammurabi, the importance of the Code of Hammurabi is that it was the first known written code of law ever and very influential in lawmaking.

                                              The dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar


The final Babylonian dynasty became the controlling power of the whole of Mesopotamia. Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son Nebuchadnezzar in 605. Nebuchadnezzar remained in the a reign for more than 40 years, giving Babylon its period of greatest fame. He was prominent in the Bible as the ruler who destroyed Jerusalem and carried off the Jews into their Babylonian captivity. And he  is featured in the list of the Seven Wonders of the World, as the creator of the hanging gardens of Babylon.

The successors of Nebuchadnezzar on the throne of Babylon are less effective. They had the misfortune to be close neighbours of the greatest empire-builder to have emerged by this stage in history.


                                                                                                                The Decline of Babylon:
In 539 BC Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon. The Bible records in the Book of Daniel about the “Handwriting on the Wall” where Belshazzar who had been ruling in Babylon on behalf of his father Nabonidus, saw handwriting on his palace wall during a feast, which Daniel the Hebrew interpreted as the end of the Babylonian Empire.

Alexander and the Greeks

The immigrants during that period did not have any well-structured culture or civilization until they adopted the culture of the city dwellers. Of course these people brought some things with them. The invaders had different languages and more importantly they had a tribal society with tribal customs. However after a few generations living in cities these tribal customs were virtually forgotten. The newcomers also had different views on some aspects, such as war. Sumerian kings boasted of the periods of peace they had brought their kingdoms, whereas the Akkadians, a Semitic people, boasted of their great victories. However there were only minor differences in Mesopotamian civilization until the introduction of Hellenism (Greek culture) with the invasion by Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (331 BC)

The Greeks were people with a long history of civilization. They imposed this civilization on all the people they conquered, building new cities with Greek civilizations. Babylon was no longer the principal city in the area and began to decline. As Babylon declined so did the Mesopotamian civilization. The old customs were forgotten or not performed. The old gods were abandoned. The old cities, the great cities of Sumer and Akkad, such as Babylon and Ur, Uruk and Eridu, Lagash and Isin declined to insignificance.

Examples of the Hammurabi Code

14. If a man has stolen a child, he shall be put to death.

128. If a man has taken a wife and has not executed a marriage contract, that woman is not a wife.

131. If a man’s wife has been accused by her husband, and has not been caught lying with another, she shall swear her innocence, and return to her house.

196. If a man has knocked out the eye of a patrician, his eye shall be knocked out.

197. If he has broken the limb of a patrician, his limb shall be broken.

200. If a patrician has knocked out the tooth of a man that is his equal, his tooth shall be knocked out.

Check more laws here

Classical Period: Mesopotamia Handout


This is the handout that you will be given in the classroom to study.

Read and do some personal research for difficult words. See you in Sunday

You can download the file here

Classical Periods

1st Year LMD

Teacher: Ms Bouadma



Mesopotamia is a historical region in southwest Asia where the world’s earliest civilization developed. The name comes from a Greek word meaning “between rivers,” referring to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. However, in the broader sense, the name Mesopotamia has come to be used for the area bounded on the northeast by the Zagros Mountains, and on the southwest by the edge of the Arabian Plateau. Only from the latitude of Baghdad do the Euphrates and Tigris truly become twin rivers, the “Rafidan” of the Arabs, which have constantly changed their courses throughout the ages. This region was the center of a culture whose influence extended throughout the Middle East and even the rest of the known world.

Mesopotamia’s Favorable Geographic Circumstances

Archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia, conducted since about 1840, have revealed evidence of settlement back to about 10,000 BC. Favorable geographic circumstances allowed Mesopotamia to evolve from a hunter-gatherer culture, to a culture based on agriculture, and permanent settlements. Trade with other regions also flourished.

As a result of the slow flow of the water, there are heavy deposits of silt, and the riverbeds are raised. Consequently, the rivers often overflow their banks. In recent times they have been regulated above Baghdad by the use of escape channels with overflow reservoirs. The extreme south is a region of extensive marshes and reed swamps.

Mesopotamia’s Transition to a More Advanced, Sedentary Life

The first agriculture, the domestication of animals, and the transition to sedentary life took place in regions in which animals that were easily domesticated, such as sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, and the wild types of grains and leguminous plants, such as wheat, barley, pea, and lentil, were present. Such centers of these things may have been the valleys and grassy border regions of the mountains of Iran, Iraq, Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine. As settled life, which caused a drop in infant mortality, led to the increase of the population, settlement spread out from these centers into the plains.


The Sumerians called themselves the “Blackheaded People”. They believed that the crafts had been taught to them by the gods and once they had developed were worked by relatively rigid rules. Names were important to the Sumerians. They sorted things into lists on their tablets, categorizing, trying to make order of their world. The Mesopotamian numbering system is based on the number six. This is where we get the numeration of the hours on the clock as well as the division of the hours into minutes and seconds today. The 12 lunar months of the year are also rooted in Mesopotamian thought.

The beginnings of higher level thinking started here as well. Arithmetic, with place-holders was developed. Algebra through quadratic equations was understood. Standardized weights and measures and geometric shapes for buildings were all put in place. Painting had been around since Paleolithic times, but the Mesopotamians took it to a new level of art in decorating buildings and walls.

Contributions, legacy of Mesopotamia


Cuneiform was the first written language. It was invented by the Sumerians in roughly 5,000 BC. Cuneiform was written in clay. Suddenly complex thoughts could be recorded. History, which had for a long time been passed down orally now had a more reliable means of transmission. Laws could be codified. Messages could be reliably sent over long distances. Writing created a new information revolution.

The Wheel

The earliest wheels were invented in about 3,500 BC. The earliest form of wheels were rollers placed underneath heavy objects to roll them along. Eventually, these runners and rollers evolved into the wheels that we use today.


Irrigation was also invented in Mesopotamia, because southern Mesopotamia was dry and there was not enough rain to grow crops. People dug trenches so that water flowed to water their crops.


Ziggurats were huge temples built by the Sumerians to honor their gods Priests placed offerings of food and other goods.

Other Inventions From Mesopotamia

Mesopotamians also invented sailboats, checkers, and chariots.

How Did These Inventions Change Mesopotamia and the World

These inventions made it possible for people to communicate and get around better. They helped create more efficient ways of watering plants to grow more food, so that more plants could be grown and more people could live in Mesopotamia. All of these inventions helped create better inventions for the future.

Civilizations in Mesopotamia

There were three main civilizations that existed over thousands of years in Mesopotamia.

The Sumerian civilization started in about 4,000- 5,000 BC. They were craftsmen and inventors.

The Babylonian civilization started in about 1,700 BC.  They specialized in architecture and astronomy. Astronomers believed that the position of the stars and planets reflected the mood of the gods and would affect life on earth. They documented the positions of the stars and planets and used their findings to advise the king on how to lead the civilization.

The Assyrian civilization began in about 2,500 BC.  Assyrians built huge palaces, some of which were the largest and most important buildings in all of Mesopotamia. These palaces were built to demonstrate the power of the kings. The Assyrian army was very powerful, and they conquered many nearby lands.


Through all these things, it is easy to tell that Mesopotamia is a very important region in world history. It has long been the center of great civilizations and peoples. The geography of this area certainly played a central role in the importance and influence of these lands. Geography has had a heavy hand in the culture and history of Mesopotamia, as it does in all areas of the world.

Study Skills: Text N°01 Time Management.

1st Year LMD
Group 15
Teacher: Ms Bouadma

Back again to university you have your timetable, you know who your teachers are, and you bought the appropriate books. What is left to do? Attend the courses. Your first lesson with each teacher will provide you with information about his/her method, and what he/she is expecting from you to do during the year. Now, after all these steps, you start attending your courses, but when you leave the university, you still have the same habits you had during summer holidays. You go out with your friends, take a long nap when you are back home, go out in the afternoons to have a football game with your neighbors (usually for boys), go to a wedding party (usually for girls). At night, it is Facebook time, and other social networks. You spend endless hours refreshing the page of your profile, looking for notifications, private messages, and sharing videos and songs, and because of these distractions, you do not realize that you are not giving much importance to your studies, and you keep saying to yourself that it is not “that much of lessons, I’ll study later.” and without realizing, the exams are here, you take a look at the board, you have two exams a day, for a whole week non-stop; you panic, you go back home, and suddenly your copy-books look heavier, your writing seems indecipherable, and the few words that you recognize look like gibberish. You start revising, but the only thing that comes to your mind is remorse. “Why did I let this happen…?” This was the result of your negligence. You neglected organizing your time, you neglected giving importance to revision, if only you dedicated an hour each day for your studies at home, you would have succeeded. But it is not only your fault, we are in an age called the Age of Distraction, too many entertainments that are preventing us from studying, but we need to be more severe with ourselves, to do our best to succeed, and one of the major keys to success is organization. That is why, I want to help you manage your time, and show you how important it is during studies time. My aim is to make you adopt a student’s approach toward studies, during the year, daily, and during the exams. These simple recommendations will make the difference, and if you follow them, you will for sure succeed without begging for marks, and without looking for extreme solutions to pass.

We start with recommendations during the year. The first thing is, get yourself real copy-books, not an agenda, or papers, but real copy-books for your courses; organize them, write clearly, and do not be shy, use colors, colors help you memorize the most important points of your lessons. Second, create a study environment at home. Make sure to have a special place in your room just for studies. Put your books there, your copy-books, pencils, pens, and everything related to university. It is important to have a special zone for studies, it will help you focus, and help you avoid any distractions. If you have a computer, use it ONLY when it is necessary. You have to learn using internet, and other technologies for a special purpose, do not let yourself be dragged to several pages, and end up in an out-of-topic search (From symbolism in Dubliners, to How to make Pot of Colcannon )
Second, in your daily life at university. Meet your new companion, its name is notebook, it is light, small, and will remind you of your tasks that you have to do at home. When a teacher advises you to read a book, to check a certain critique, to do some assignments and homework, you will never fail to remember what you have to do. Another helper is the post-it notes. Once home, write what kind of researches you have to do on the internet, or in books, stick them on the wall and take them down once you are done. Use bright colors, to make you remember their presence, and their importance. Your last daily time saver and organizer is the “TO DO” list. In a piece of paper, write down a list of what you have to do when you come back home, for example, rewrite your notes on the copy-book, check for difficult words, read more about a certain writer, etc… Check them when you are done. This list will make you realize how much efforts you have done, and that you really did something positive, instead of just looking at your book for an hour without achieving any kind of progress in your revisions. An additional thing to do is preparing the upcoming lesson. By preparing, you do not have to go through deep researches, but just to have a glance on the upcoming lesson, to be able to follow the teacher in class. When you look back, and see your list checked, you will feel satisfied with yourself, and you will know that you did great today revising.
Finally, during exams. You have one hour and thirty minutes. Usually, we fail to manage the time given to us, we panic, we spend too much time looking at the question (not reading it) trying to figure out why it is too short, yet so complicated. The best way to be able to make it, is to divide the time we have. Take at least 15 minutes to write an outline. The outline is a LIFE-saver, an important first step for any good essay. Never neglect this step if you are the type that knows the answer but doesn’t know how to start writing. Next step is writing on the rough paper. Write with a pencil, do not try to put everything you know, but only the relevant points. Next is copying on the exam paper. Do not spend too much time on the rough paper, and little time copying; you will end up writing quickly, and your writing will not look very good. Follow these steps; I am sure you will be able to make it on time, without asking the teacher for an extra five minutes, risking to get a zero if you do not give your exam paper back on the right time.
Simple actions, for efficient results. If you follow them, you will level up and increase your abilities to learn, and to take actions in any situation. Try it, and feel the result. It worked for me, why not for you?

Ms Bouadma

Literary Genres: An Introduction to Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

This is a story of individual accomplishment. That accomplishment takes the form of four marriages: Darcy and Elizabeth, Bingley and Jane, Wickham and Lydia, Collins and Charlotte Lucas. In addition, the story leads to some unexpected outcomes. Bingley, whom Darcy hoped to make his brother-in-law by marrying to his sister Georgiana, becomes his brother-in-law instead through their marriages to two sisters, Elizabeth and Jane. More surprising to our sense of justice, Wickham, who attempted to become Darcy’s brother-in-law by elopement with Georgiana, does become his brother-in-law by marrying Elizabeth’s sister Lydia. Most remarkable of all, Collins, whose highest aspiration in life was not marriage, but rather close association with his distinguished benefactor, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, actually becomes the lady’s distant relative through the marriage of his cousin Elizabeth to the lady’s nephew Darcy. Taken as clever story telling, we may be surprised or amused. Taken as profound reflections on truths of human life and action, we can only marvel at the conscious or subconscious knowledge of a twenty-year-old English author.

Social Evolution in Pride & Prejudice

This is also a story of the accomplishment of English society, a society that chose an evolutionary path to social progress in preference to a destructive revolutionary movement like that which wracked France at the time. The society accomplished this evolution by opening up previously inaccessible levels of higher society to those with lesser status and wealth and by a conscious descent of those higher levels to embrace the life-renewing vitality of the bourgeois class. This evolutionary process is reflected in every thought, sentiment and action in the story and is a key to understanding the forces that lead to individual accomplishment. These two movements are inextricably bound together. They are two aspects of a single movement. The thoughts, attitudes, and actions of the individual characters express and contribute to the wider movement of the society in which they occur. The process of social accomplishment and its reflections in the story are examined in Social Evolution in Pride and Prejudice.

Human Character

All great literature reveals truths of human character and human nature that exceed, both above and below, the standards and norms of social character and behavior. The quality, intensity, attitudes, valuesand motives of the individuals involved in the action, particularly the relationship of their individual characters to the specific action, are powerful determinants that very often overshadow in importance the determining characteristics of the act itself. This story brings out the crucial distinction between those whose character is simply a product of the society, the times and the class in which they live and those rare few who develop formed individual characters with the knowledge and will for psychological growth. The accomplishments of the main characters are more a result of their psychological growth than of the external initiatives they take. These individuals take a wide range of initiatives, most of which fail or lead to consequences very different than they had intended. Yet, the movement of events leads invariably toward accomplishment, propelled by a progression of apparently extraneous forces and circumstances. A true understanding of the forces leading to accomplishment requires an understanding of the psychological changes that the main characters undergo. The role of social and individual character in determining the outcome of the story is discussed in Human Character in Pride and Prejudice.

Character of Life

The results of action in the story are an expression not only of human initiative, individual and social character, but also of the character of life itself. Life is a universal field in which forces and forms act and interact with each other. Like the individual and society, it too has what may be called a character of its own. That character can be described in terms of the distinctive ways in which life events occur, repeat and reverse, and the factors that determine the results and consequences of human action. Character of Life in P&P presents a brief discussion of the character of life and illustrates many of its principles from events and consequences in the story.

Spiritual Evolution in Pride & Prejudice

An analysis of action, individual character, social character and the character of life may provide great insight into the course and outcome of the story, it leaves unexplored the far greater field of spiritual determinants that express in and through individuals, societies and life itself. While a story of this type is not the ideal medium for an exploration of this type, we have attempted to illustrate the process of spiritual evolution described by Sri Aurobindo as it is illustrated by actions and events in the story. In The Life Divine, he describes the process of creation or self-conception by which the Absolute or Divine Being manifests the universe by becoming the universe that it creates. This is the process by which the spiritual reality involves itself in material form and life and evolves to rediscover its consciousness, power and being. Spiritual Evolution in P&P examines how the process of spiritual evolution is reflected in the story.