Group 15-16 Literary Genres: Twelfth Night


In our lesson, we have seen:


Olivia: Grieving her dead brother and father, however wanting to show the world that no one can grief as her.

Viola: The intelligent pragmatic woman, who seeks solutions instead of lamenting over drams that happened to her.

Orsino: Blindly in love with Olivia, but we are not sure if he is in love with her or in love of how  he is in love with her.

Malvolio: The puritan within in the play, talks in a disdainful way to everyone he things is under him, and seeks the fortunes of Lady Olivia.

Maria: The shrewd maid that will have a hand on the making of the downfall plan for Malvolio.

Feste: A wise fool who tells the turth about everyone without getting hurt at any time.

Sir Toby: The drunkard cousin to Olivia who does not care about anything in the world, or so he seems to be.

Sir Andrew: Toby’s friend, fool, idiot, and thinking of himself being a brave knight in a very Don Quiwote-ish way.

We have discussed the aspect of Comedy IN Seriousness, through several scenes


1- Confession of Olivia to Cesario

2-Malvolio with Yellow stockings presenting himself to his mistress.

3-The ridicule fight for love between Cesario and Andrew

These are only some examples; you have to read the play and elaborate more on your own.

We have spoken also about Disguise

Being a device, disguise is both a curse and a bliss, we saw that through some examples of the play.

A curse as Viola falls in love with the duke, Olivia falls in love with Viola, Sebastian fights with Andrew willing to kill him which make disguise  dangerous.

A bliss as it helps to untangle all the problems in the play at the very end.

Again, you need to elaborate more on that and do some research.


Literary Genres: Link to No Fear Shakespeare: Twelfth Night


Here is the link to No Fear Shakespeare for Twelfth Night

Group 15: The Fall of the House of Usher & Eveline

The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar.A.Poe

We studied three major points

Foreshadowing:  It implies giving hints about the future events. We studied some examples, like the title itself, the fissure on the house,  the physical and mental state of the brother and sister. Do further research on it.

Symbolism: Using symbolism in literature can intensify the meaning and give it more impact, than just writing directly the events.

Irrationality & Rationality: Edgar A. Poe  chose a rational narrator. We studied why he did so. He used such narrator to contrast between super natural events happening and the logic mind of the narrator fighting these ‘illusions’ in which he always foresaw logical explanation.

Eveline by James Joyce

We studied

Symbolism as a major characteristic of the short story: The first three lines of the short story are rich in symbolism as they present to us, the emotional, financial, and physical state of the main protagonist, Eveline.

The notion of Paralysis: We studied the element the prevents the protagonists of Dubliners from taking a personal decision. As far as Eveline is concerned, her paralysis prevents her from taking the final decision, and she prefers to remain with her oppressive father rather than seek happiness with her lover.

Epiphany  in Dubliners.

Classical Period: Babylonia Handout

This is the handout that you will be given in the classroom to study. Again, try to look up for difficult words and do some personal research. Keep up! Click here to download the handout

Classical Periods

1st Year LMD

Teacher: Ms Bouadma

Babylon: Capital City of Babylonia

Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia. It was the capital city of Babylonia from the second to first millennium B.C. Hammurabi made Babylon the capital city of his kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar, centuries later, also made his capital in Babylon and rebuilt the city. Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon was the largest city of the time. In it was a temple of Marduk and Ziggurat, the Tower of Babel. In 331 B.C. Babylon surrendered to Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, Babylon fell into the hands of the Seleucids.Babylon was a commercial, administrative, literary, and religious center. The chief god of Babylon, Marduk, became supreme Mesopotamian god.



 Hammurabi ruled  Mesopotamia. He is credited with uniting most of this area under one extensive empire for the first time since Sargon of Akkad did so in about 2300 BC. To do this, Hammurabi waged several military campaigns. The purpose of most of his operations was to gain control of the Tigris and Euphrates waters, on which agricultural productivity depended.

The last 14 years of Hammurabi’s reign were overshadowed by war. In 1763 he fought against a coalition east of the Tigris that threatened to block access to metal-producing areas in Iran. The same year he conquered the city of Larsa, which enabled him to take over the older Sumerian cities in the south. He followed this victory with the conquest of Mari, 250 miles (400 kilometers) upstream on the Euphrates. During his last two years the king concentrated on building defensive fortifications. By this time he was a sick man, and the government was in the hands of his son, Samsuiluna.

Hammurabi effected great changes in all spheres of life, mostly from the transformation of a small city-state into a large empire. Most of his rule was given to the establishment of law and order, religious buildings, irrigation projects, and defense works. Throughout his long reign, he personally supervised navigation, irrigation, agriculture, tax collection, and the erection of many temples and other buildings. Although he was a successful military leader and administrator, Hammurabi is primarily remembered for his codification of the laws governing Babylonian life called the Code of Hammurabi, the importance of the Code of Hammurabi is that it was the first known written code of law ever and very influential in lawmaking.

                                              The dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar


The final Babylonian dynasty became the controlling power of the whole of Mesopotamia. Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son Nebuchadnezzar in 605. Nebuchadnezzar remained in the a reign for more than 40 years, giving Babylon its period of greatest fame. He was prominent in the Bible as the ruler who destroyed Jerusalem and carried off the Jews into their Babylonian captivity. And he  is featured in the list of the Seven Wonders of the World, as the creator of the hanging gardens of Babylon.

The successors of Nebuchadnezzar on the throne of Babylon are less effective. They had the misfortune to be close neighbours of the greatest empire-builder to have emerged by this stage in history.


                                                                                                                The Decline of Babylon:
In 539 BC Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon. The Bible records in the Book of Daniel about the “Handwriting on the Wall” where Belshazzar who had been ruling in Babylon on behalf of his father Nabonidus, saw handwriting on his palace wall during a feast, which Daniel the Hebrew interpreted as the end of the Babylonian Empire.

Alexander and the Greeks

The immigrants during that period did not have any well-structured culture or civilization until they adopted the culture of the city dwellers. Of course these people brought some things with them. The invaders had different languages and more importantly they had a tribal society with tribal customs. However after a few generations living in cities these tribal customs were virtually forgotten. The newcomers also had different views on some aspects, such as war. Sumerian kings boasted of the periods of peace they had brought their kingdoms, whereas the Akkadians, a Semitic people, boasted of their great victories. However there were only minor differences in Mesopotamian civilization until the introduction of Hellenism (Greek culture) with the invasion by Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (331 BC)

The Greeks were people with a long history of civilization. They imposed this civilization on all the people they conquered, building new cities with Greek civilizations. Babylon was no longer the principal city in the area and began to decline. As Babylon declined so did the Mesopotamian civilization. The old customs were forgotten or not performed. The old gods were abandoned. The old cities, the great cities of Sumer and Akkad, such as Babylon and Ur, Uruk and Eridu, Lagash and Isin declined to insignificance.

Examples of the Hammurabi Code

14. If a man has stolen a child, he shall be put to death.

128. If a man has taken a wife and has not executed a marriage contract, that woman is not a wife.

131. If a man’s wife has been accused by her husband, and has not been caught lying with another, she shall swear her innocence, and return to her house.

196. If a man has knocked out the eye of a patrician, his eye shall be knocked out.

197. If he has broken the limb of a patrician, his limb shall be broken.

200. If a patrician has knocked out the tooth of a man that is his equal, his tooth shall be knocked out.

Check more laws here